He studied for an MA at Oxford (Oriel College) and later taught in Jamaica, Ghana and Guyana. He wrote two novels, The Last Enchantment and Interim and a critical work, Prolegomena to West Indian Literature. He was appointed Director of the Institute of Jamaica on his return to Jamaica and established the Institute’s short-lived but important publishing programme. Always a Marxist, he was deeply immersed in Africa, in English Literature and in his nationalist identification with the rural Jamaican working class. His writing is located within these poles.